TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page — — — — — i
Approval Page — — — — — ii
Certification — — — — — iv
Dedication — — — — —
Acknowledgements — — — — — v
Table of Contents — — — — — vi
Abstract — — — — — xi
Chapter One – Introduction
1.1 Background to the Problem — — — 1
1.2 Statement to the Problem — — — 6
1.3 Scope of the Study — — — — 7
1.4 Purpose of the Study — — — — 8
1.5 Significance of the Study — — — 9
1.6. Research Questions — — — — 10
Chapter Two – Review of Related Literature —
2.1 Faulty Statistics in UBE Programme —
2.2 Inadequate Funding in UBE Programme —
2.3 Financial Mismanagement in UBE — —
2.4 Lack of Infrastructural and Instructional
Facilities — — — —
2.5 Improper Planning in UBE Programme —
2.6 Lack of Political will in UBE — — —
2.7 Summary of Literature Review — —
Chapter Three – Research Methodology — 37
3.1 Design of the Study — — — — 37
3.2 Area of the Study — — — — 38
3.3 Population of the Study — — — 39
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques — — 40
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection — — 41
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument — 42
3.7 Administration of the Instrument — — 42
3.8 Method and Technique of Data Analysis — 43
Chapter Four – Data Analysis and Results
4.1 Research Question One — — —
4.2 Research Question Two — — —
4.3 Research Question Three — — —
4.4 Research Question Four — — —
4.5 Research Question Five — — —
4.6 Research Question Six — — —
4.7 Summary of the Findings — — —
Chapter Five –Discussion of Results
5.1 Discussion of Findings — — — 54
5.2 Conclusion — — —
5.3 Educational Implication of the Finding —
5.4 Recommendation — — — 62
5.5 Limitations of the Study — — —
5.6 Suggestion for Further Research — — 64
References — — — — —
Appendix — — — — —
The study aimed at ascertaining the Assessment of the Implementation of the Universal Basic Education in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study, sought to determine the extent of involvement of faulty statistics of the enrolment figures, inadequate funding, mismanagement of fund, lack of infrastructural and instructional facilities, improper planning and lack of political will. The involved a sample of 115 teachers and 37 duty principals. The teachers sample was selected by stratified random sampling technique using a table of random numbers from teachers population of 229 in the 37 public schools in Ebonyi State, while the duty principals’ population of 37 was chosen for the study. Discussions on the findings were made and the result indicated that government cannot single handedly shoulder the responsibilities involved in Universal Basic Education. The educational implications were identified, recommendations were made and conclusion drawn.
1.1 Background to the Problem
The Universal Primary Education (UPE) was first introduced in the Western Region in 1955 and in the Eastern region in 1957 respectively. Inadequate funding under budgeting, pupils enrolment explosion, poor quality teaching and supervision marked the UPE scheme. During the period, funding and management of primary schools were under the local authorities.
In order to provide basic education for all Nigeria children, the Federal Government declared a universal Primary Education for all kinds of six years in the nation in September 1976. Igwe (1998:262) states that “today”, there is hardly any Nigeria community/village is without one primary school. This means that education has been brought to the door post of people requiring to be educated. This implies that in the 1976 Universal Primary School Programme, the Federal Government took up the administration and management of primary school, unlike the former regionalized Universal Primary Education of 1990s. From 1976,pupils enrolment in the Universal Primary Education was on the increase. Achunine (1997:131) disclosed that “the population grew to 15 million in 1980”.
The programme ensured that every Nigerian child benefited from the basic education at the primary level. However, poor planning, poor funding, mismanagement of fund, population explosion, Achunine (1997:131) also stated that “the programme went into Limbo in 1982” Fafunwa (1974) equally observed that “the Universal Primary Education failed because some states saw the funds allocated to them as their share of the national cake”. The fund which the Federal Government made available was grossly mismanaged. Conditions of primary schools were seriously and pathetically bad especially in the war torn area of south eastern states. The situation was such that anybody who had First School Leaving Certificate (FSLC) was recruited to teach eager and willing youths. Since the government could not longer cope, particularly in the war diversted area of ht south, the UPE scheme finally collapsed and the national policy remained on paper. This affected the quality of education. Nwagwu (1987:35) commenting on the situation said:
With all these problems depends on the quality of teaching staff, the curriculum, teaching and learning aids, infrastructural facilities and good school administration and management.
These as Nwagwu outlined above was not these case. Rather the situation again was as described by Taiwo (1982:36) thus:
Sequel to the in flex of children at the advert of the UPE scheme the number of qualified teachers were not enough to staff all the schools, the existing school building were not sufficient resulting in the acute shortage of classrooms and pupils and staff making use of make shift building. There were inadequate teaching materials and even lack of funds to pay the number of recruited teachers through found mostly unqualified.
Osuji (1991:26) said that:
The Federal Government undertook the responsibility to finance primary education after the launching of the UPE, thus, from April 1979, made annual grant of forty naira (N40.00) per pupil and student duly registered in the primary and secondary schools respectively.
Moreso, the Federal Government helped in the provision of infrastructure to the schools and the payment of Grade II teacher training college salaries.
However, by the 1976 session, the full financing impact of the burden began to bite. Based on the Okigbo Commission of revenue allocation (1980), the Federal Government transferred back full responsibility for primary education to the state and local government in 1981. This was the era of civilian administration and the grant of N40.00 per pupils and students was stopped.
Almost all the entire problems that characterized the universal primary education of 1976. Tahir (2001) stating the weakness of UPE disclosed that:
For many reasons, including lack of political will, subsequent government failure to sustain programme by building on the social and physical structures already established. The result was a gradual but steady decline in all facets of primary education including enrolment attendances quality and quantity of teachers, infrastructures and facilities.
In order to have a more comprehensive universal compulsory formal education that will address the assessment of education imbalance, boy dropouts, illiteracy, perennial unemployment, gender discrimination in education system etc, the Universal Basic Education was introduced. The Universal Basic Education was lunched on 29th of September, 1999 by the president Obasanjo administration.
Whatever affected the Universal Primary Education may also affect the Universal Basic Education if it is not properly planned and implemented. It is on this premise that Maduabum (2004:18) disclosed that “the documented out comes of ht Universal Primary Education (UPE) scheme have become reference points to inform better, implementation strategies for a similar programme such as the Universal Basic Education Scheme, it is imperative that the objectives of the scheme should be clearly stated to provide framework or guidelines of achieving the expectations.
1.2 Statement to the Problem
Available records show that 1976 Universal Primary Education failed due to some obvious problems like inadequate funding by the Federal Government, mismanagement of funds by the states, population explosion, improper planning, faulty statistics of enrolment, inadequate and poor quality teachers. Since Nigeria needed a Universal and Compulsory Education that will cover a broader scope that the Universal Basic Education was introduced. The Universal Basic Education if not properly handled may collapse like the universal Primary Education Scheme. There is therefore need to identify the assessment of the Universal Basic Programme and make recommendation forth improvement.
1.3 Scope of the Study
Geographically, the scope of this study is Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, which is made up of four (4) autonomous communities namely, Isu, Anioma, Onicha and Igboeze autonomous community. The duty principals and teachers in these schools constituted the subjects of the study. The content scope of the study is confined to the identification of those problem associated with assessment of the implementation of the UBE in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
The assessment include: Faulty statistics of the enrolment figures, inadequate funding, mismanagement of fund, lack of infrastructural and instructional facilities, improper planning and lack of political will.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the assessment facing Universal Basic Education Implementation in Onicha Local Government of Ebonyi State, specifically, the objectives of the study are to find out:
- The extent faulty statistics of the enrolment figures constitute a problem in assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- Whether inadequate funding constitute a problem in assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- Whether mismanagement of fund constitute a problem in assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- The extent lack of infrastructural and instructional facilities constitute a problem in assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- Whether improper planning constitute a problem in assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- The extent lack of political will constitute a problem in assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will go a long way in adding to or increasing to fill all existing pot-holes in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State since the assessment are human assessments requiring human solution only.
It would encourage tackling the issue of funding frontally by making all the stakeholders of primary and secondary education to share in the cost through effective mobilization and sensitization. The study will help to retain the right caliber of teachers and non-teaching staff in the primary and secondary school system, through carefully planned recruitments, regular workshops, seminar, conference and good reward system. It will also help the supervision/monitoring units of SUBEB, LGEAS and the Ministry of Education to carry out regular and effective supervision of schools. It will help to know that the appointment of key education managers should be based on qualifications, administrative competence and integrity. The findings provision of the free and compulsory Education law already passed by the State House of Assembly should be vigorously enforce to ensure a hitch free implementation of the programme.
1.6 Research Questions
To guide this investigation, the following research questions were posed:
i) To what extent do the faulty statistics of the enrolment figures an assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
ii) Does inadequate funding constitute an assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
iii) To what extent does the mismanagement of fund constitute an assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
iv) To what extent do lack of infrastructural and instructional facilities constitute an assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
v) Does improper planning constitute an assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
vi) To what extent do lack of political will constitute an assessment in UBE implementation in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?